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ra aris turbo?


erTi shexedviT aseTi patara „lokokina“ - dzravis simdzlavris gazrdis erT-erTi kvelze efeqturi xerxia.


ra aris turbo?

dartsmunebuli var, kovel chvenTagans erTxel mainc eqneba shenishnuli erTi shexedviT, chveulebriv avtomobilze mikruli patara nishani - «turbo». isini mcire zomisaa da specialurad, iseT adgilze aTavseben, rom chveulebrivi gamvleli iolad auvlis mas gverds, ufro gaTviTcnobierebuli ki gacherdeba da daakvirdeba. qvemoT chven mogiTxrobT mizezs aseTi saqcielisa.
avtomobilis konstruqtorebi (am profesiis qveknad gachenis momentidan) mudmivad fiqroben xerxebze, Tu rogor gazardon dzravis simdzlavre. fizikis kanonebi gvamcnoben, rom es machvenebeli pirdapir kavshirshia erTi samushao ciklis ganmavlobashi gamokenebuli satsvavis raodenobasTan. vTqvaT mogindaT ufro mdzlavri avtomobiliT gaseirneba - rogor gavakeToT es? stsored aq aris damaluli katis Tavi.

TURBO
turbokompresori 2 „lokokinisagan“ shedgeba - erTi maTganis meshveobiT gadamushavebuli airebi gaedineba, meore ki cilindrshi haeris mitsodebiTaa dakavebuli.


saqme imashia,rom satsvavis tsvisaTvis aucilebelia jangbadi. ase rom, cilindrebshi mxolod satsvavi ki ara misi da haeris naerTi itsvis. Tanac maTi sheerTeba mxolod gansazgvrul mimarTebashi sheidzleba. magaliTad, benzinis dzravebshi satsvavis erT tsilze 14-15 tsili haeri unda modiodes - mushaobis rejimis, satsvavis shemadgenlobis da sxva faqtorebis gaTvalistsinebiT.

rogorc vxedavT, haeri - bevria sachiro. Tu gavzrdiT satsvavis mitsodebas (es ar aris problema), mnishvnelovnad mogvitsevs jangbadis mitsodebis gazrdac. chveulebrivi dzravebi TavisiT itsoven mas, cilindrsa da atmosferoshi tsnevis gansxvavebis gamo. damokidebuleba pirdapir-proporciulia - ramdenjerac metia cilindris moculoba, imdenjer meti haeri xvdeba masshi kovel ciklze. asec moiqcnen amerikelebi, gamoushves dzravebi uzarmazari moculobiT da satsvavis danaxarjis didi doniT. magram ra moxdeba, Tu imave moculobashi met jangbads movaTavsebT?

 

 

TURBO
dzravidan gamodevnili airi atrialebs dgushs. mas, Tavis mxriv modzraobashi mohkavs kompresori, romelic cilindrshi shekumshul haers gamodevnis. sanam es moxdeba, iqamde - haeri inTer-qulers gaivlis da civdeba - ase misi simkvrivis gazrda sheidzleba.


aris da pirvelad igi moigona batonma gotlib vilhelm daimlerma (Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler). gecnobaT gvari? stsored igi gxvdebaT dasaxelebashi - DaimlerChrysler. sxvaTa shoris, es germaneli dzalian kargad azrovnebda da dzravebshic kargad erkveoda. man 1885 tsels moifiqra, Tu rogor moeTavebinaT meti jangbadi dzravshi. stsored mas ekuTvnis idea, rom cilindrshi haeri gamtsovis sashualebiT shesuliko, romelsac „vintiliatoris“ (kompresori) saxe eqneboda.


 

TURBO

shveicarieli injiner-gamomgonebeli alfred biuxi (Alfred J. Büchi) - kidev ufro shors tsavida. igi Sulzer Brothers - kompaniis dzravebis tsarmoebiT iko dakavebuli da dzalian ar mostsonda, rom isini aseTi mdzimeebi da didebi iko, simdzlavres ki mcires idzleoda. 1905 tsels bn-ma biuxim daapatenta msoflioshi pirveli gamtsovi, romelic gamonabolqvi airebis modzraobis energiis xarjze moqmedebda. erTi sitkviT, man turo-gamberi
gamoigona. chkviani shveicarielis ideac, iseve, rogorc kvelaferi genialuri -dzalian martivia. rogroc qaris tsisqvils atrialebs haeris nakadi, ise gamodevnili airi atrialebs borbals shemonafenebiT. gansxvaveba mxolod imashia, rom es borbali dzalian mcirea, shemonafenebi ki - bevri. mTel am motskobilobas qvia „ dgushis rotori“ da kompresorTan erTad aris moTavsebuli. shedegad, turbo-gamtsovi 2 natsiladac sheidzleba daikos - rotori da kompresori. rotori shemobrundeba gadamushavebuli airis nakadis gamo, masTan dakavshirebuli kompresori ki, romelic „vintiliatoris“ funqcias asrulebs - damatebiT haers itsovs cilindrshi. mTeli es „brdzeni“ konstruqcia cnobilia saxeltsodebiT - turbo kompresori (laTinurad: turbo — grigali da compressio — shekumshva) an turbo-gamtsovi.

 

 

TURBO
turbogamberis analogi - amdzravis gamtsovi - mchidrodaa dakavshirebuli dzravTan, romlis simdzlavris natsili mis mushaobaze ixarjeba.

haeri turbo-dzravshi, romelic cilindrshi xvdeba, xshirad damatebiT gacivebas moiTxovs - mashin misi tsnevis gazrdac sheidzleba cilindrshi meti jangbadis moTavsebiT. civi haeris shekumshva xom gacielbiT iolia, vidre cxelis.

haeri, romelic turbinashi gaivlis, shekumshvisa da gamonabolqvi airis mier shemTbari turbogamberis detalebisagan - xurdeba. dzravisaken mimarTuli jangbadi inTer-quleriT (perioduli gamacivebeli) civdeba. es aris erTgvari radiatori, romelic kompresorsa da dzravis cilidrebs shoris aris dakenebuli. masshi gavlis mere haeris nakadi Tavis siTbos atmosferos gadascems. civi haeri ki ufro mkvrivia - e.i. cilindrshi misi meti raodenobis moTavseba sheidzleba.

 

TURBO
ase gamoikeneba inTer-quleri.

rac meti gamonabolqvi xvdeba turbinashi, igi metad stsrafad trialebs da damatebiTi haeri xvdeba dzravshi, is ki met simdzlavres gvadzlevs. am gadatskvetis efeqturoba imashi mdgomareobs, rom TviTmomsaxurebaze dzravis energiis mxolod 1.5% ixarjeba. kvelaferi zemoT agnishnulis shedegad, turbogamberiani dzravebi, mis Tanamodzme „atmosferulebTan“ shedarebiT (romlebic imave simdzlavres idzlevian) - ufro ekonomiuria. TiTqos, mivageniT ariadnes dzafis bolos, magram kvelaferi arc amdenad martivia. problemebi mxolod axla itskeba.

 

TURBO
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution-shi inTer-quleri tsina „bampershia“ moTavsebuli, radiatoris tsin. Subaru Impreza WRX STI-shi ki — gamtsovis tsin.


jer erTic, dgushis brunvis sichqarem sheidzeba miagtsios 200 aTas br/tsT-s. meorec - dakofili airebis temperatura 1000°C-s achvenebs. Tqven tsarmogidgeniaT?! 1000°C!!! ras nishnavs kvelaferi es? imas, rom aseTi machveneblebis gamdzle motskobilobis gakeTeba arc iseTi ioli da iafaia.

TURBO

gamonabolqvi airebi gamomshveb sistemasac axureben da turbogambersac. amitomac am xelsatskom didi gavrceleba mxolod II msoflio omis dros hpova da isic, mxolod aviaciashi. 50-ian tslebshi amerikulma kompaniam - Caterpillar igi Tavis traqtorebshi gamoikena, xalxma Cummins-dan ki pireli turbo dizelelbi - sabargo avtomobilebshi daamontaja. seriul msubuq avtomobilebze turbodzravebi mogvianebiT dakenda. moxda es 1962 tsels. mashin roca dgis sinaTle erTdroulad ixila: Oldsmobile Jetfire da Chevrolet Corvair Monza -ma. konstruqciis agebulebis sirTule da magali TviTgirebuleba- misi erTaderTi nakli rodia. saqme imashia, rom dgushis mushaobis efeqturoba dzlieraa damokidebuli dzravis brunvebze. dabali brunvebis pirobebshi gamonaboqlvi cotaa, rotoric sustad brunavs da kompresori TiTqmis ver ushvebs damatebiT haers cilindrebshi. stsored amis gamoa, rom daaxlobiT 3 aTasi brinvisas dzravi verafers axerxebs da mxolod shemdeg, ase 4-5- aTasis pirobebshi uecrad amushavdeba.

arsebobs ufro daxvetsili konstruqciebic. magaliTad, injinerebi dzravze erTis nacvlad 2 dgushs akeneben. erTi dabali brunvis pirobebshi mushaobs da ase vTqvaT „axurebs“ konstruqcias, xolo meore mogvianebiT irTveba. aseTi gadatskveta cnobili saxeliT - twin-turbo. tsina saukunis bolosaTvis avtomobilebi dgushebis Tanmimdevruli charTvis sistemiT - sakmaod popualruli iko. mas ushvebda: Nissan, Toyota, Mazda da Porsche-c ki. Tumca agebulebis sirTulis gamo, es idea stsrafad shecvala sxvam.

magaliTad, paraleluri turbogamberi an biturbo. anu, erTis nacvlad 2 erTnairi dgushi idgmeba. isini erTmaneTis damoukideblad mushaoben. idea aseTia: rac ufro pataraa turbina, miT stsrafad igi brunavs da dzravic ufro iolad axdens reagirebas kvelaferze. rogroc tsesi, 2 dgushi V-tipis dzravebshi kendeboda. TiTo kovel „naxevarze“.

kidev erTi variantia - dgushi ori „lokokiniT“ an twin-scroll. erT-erTi maTgani (ufro mozrdili) miigebs gadamushavebul airs dzravis cilindrebis erTi naxevridan, meore (ufro momcro) - cilindrebis meore naxevridan. orive maTgani airs erT dgushs atsvdis da efeqturad atrialebs mas rogorc dabal, aseve magal brunvebze.

 

TURBO
twin-scroll-s dgushis ormagi „lokokina“ gaachnia - erTi maTgani efeqturad mushaobs dzravis magali brunvisas, meore - dabalisas.


arc amiT dakmakofildnen konstruqtorebi. ra sachiroa 2 dgushi, Tu erTic kargad gaarTmevs Tavs. mTavaria ise moetskos, rom man kvela diapazonshi erTnairad imushaos. ase gachnda turbina cvalebadi geometriiT. stsored aq itskeba kvelaze saintereso. brunvebis mixedviT specialuri shemonafenebi trialebs. shedegad miigeba „super-dgushi“, romelic brunvaTa nebismieri diapazonshi kargad mushaobs. es idea did xans arsebobda, magram misi realizacia mxolod axla moxerxda. pirvelad isini dizelis dzravebshi dakenda. benzinis modelebshi ki igi pirvelad Porsche 911 Turbo-shi damontajda.

TURBO
dgushi cvalebadi geometriiT.


turbodzravebis idea sul axlaxan gaacnobiera xalxma, bolo dros ki misi popualroba mkveTrad gaizarda. Tanac, turbo-kompresorebis idea ara mxolod dzravebis forsirebisaTvis gamodga kargi, aramed gamonabolqvis sitsmindisa da ekonomiurobis amaglebisaTvisac. ishviaTi dizelis avtomobilebi „turbo“ danamats dges ar moicavs. samagierod benzinis erTi shexedviT chveulebrivi manqanebi misi tskalobiT namdvil „cecxlovan“ meqanizmad gadaiqca. es stsored isinia, patara sheumchneveli nishnebiT - «turbo».

 

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jozef19191 2012-02-09 10:28:30
admin am saitze rom shemovdivar qarTuli shrifti ar irTveba da inglisuri asoebiT aris teqsti qarTulad ... mTavar gverdze saertod mTavari meniu ar chans ... Tu shegidzlia mitxari ra shrifti davakenoi da sad vishovo ...
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